(c) valuation of financial instruments
The Group measures fair values using the following fair value hierarchy that reflects the significance of the inputs used in making the measurements:
Level 1: fair value is calculated using quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: fair value is estimated using inputs other than quoted market prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (as prices) or indirectly (derived from prices).
Level 3: fair value is estimated using inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).
The following table shows the carrying amounts and fair values if financial assets and financial liabilities, including their levels in the fair value hierarchy. It does not include fair value information for financial assets and financial liabilities not measured at fair value if the carrying amount is a reasonable approximation of fair value:
The following table shows the valuation techniques used in measuring Level 2 and Level 3 fair values, as well as the significant unobservable inputs used.